turbochargers for street engines

Garrett T03 80-85 M-TE
CT20 82-90+ 3T-GTEU, 22R-TE, 1C-T, 2C-T, 2L-T
CT26 84-96+ 3S-GTE (some), 7M-GTE, 12H-T, 13B-T, 14B-T, 1HD-T
CT12 85-90+ 1G-GTE (two), 2E-TE, 3E-TE, 1N-T, 2C-T
CT9 89-90+ 4E-FTE, 2C-T
CT26 ceramic 89+ 3S-GTE (some)
CT12A ceramic  90+ 1JZ-GTE (two)
CT12B 94-96+ 2JZ-GTE (two)

Toyota unfortunately has never published the compressor maps for its turbos. The CT20, as you can see was the first Toyota turbo, and is far from perfect. It has relatively restrictive turbine housing even for the stock horsepower levels of its applications. Lag is also considerable. Maximum flow is enough for about 210hp. Also, it is reported to fail around 100000km no matter how religiously you cool-down after driving and use best oils possible. Insulating the oil lines with thermal wrap and installing an oil temperature meter and if necessary oil cooler would be A Good Idea to prolong its lifespan. I've disassembled mine after it failed in very short period of time, after an estimated 80000-110000km. SOME CT20's have water cooled bearing housings, and some don't.
non-water cooled water cooled
early 3T-GTEU (82,83,?) 1C-T
2C-T (until 86)
2L-T (until 86)
late 3T-GTEU (?,85)
22R-TE
presumably all post-86 applications
The 100000km lifetime is based on the 22R-TE ('85-'88) units, so I may actually have been lucky to get around there with a non-water cooled unit. There is no conclusive evidence that watercooled bearings in general would result in longer life.

CT20 has slightly worse lag than a Garrett T03 with 0.63 A/R and 45-trim compressor. However, the Garrett poses a much smaller restriction to the exhaust due to 40% larger turbine inlet. Also, this Garrett compressor has a maximum intake air flow for about 240hp.

 [disassembly picture]

CT26 is a much improved unit featuring a divided turbine housing for better response. It is also water cooled.

 Some CT26's in MR2's had ceramic turbine wheels for further improved response.

Maximum play for CT26 (probably about the same for others too): axial 0.13mm radial 0.18mm

 
CT12B is manufactured by Hitachi for Toyota. Pretty good turbo when it comes to efficiency and response, but they seem to fail a lot on the Supra TT...

turbochargers for racing use

CT34R(T,D) 82-85 4T-GT
CT44ST 85-88 3S-GT
CT26RT 88-89+ 3S-GT
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